Citrine is quartz generally occurring in a golden color. Citrine occurs naturally in Scotland and in the Ural Mountains of Russia. Much citrine available today is actually smoky quartz or amethyst that has been heat-treated to achieve its characteristic color.
Deep red garnet is derived from a number of minerals, including pyrope and almandine. Popularized in Bohemia in the Czech Republic, garnet has been used in decoration and jewelry across Europe for many years. Its color is generally a dark burgundy, sometimes with a hint of orange, pink, or purple.
Spring green peridot is the gem variety of ovaline, a silicate mineral thought to be common in the upper mantle of Earth's crust. Peridot-grade ovaline is most abundant in Pakistan and other dry areas. Used as early as 1580 BC in Egypt, peridot is held as a symbol of the Sun.
Derived from "tapaz," the Sanskrit word for fire, topaz is one of the most brilliant cut gemstones in existence. Topaz comes in a variety of colors from yellow to blue, and deeper blues and pinks are often created by heat-treating stones. Brazil is the world's top exporter of topaz.